From iconic golden-jeweled tiaras and floor length ball gowns to magic spells and poisonous apples, the female royalty of the Disney Empire has and continues to enthrall people across generations and age groups. The princesses have littered young children’s bedrooms, theme parks and films for nearly a century and in turn have become a large topic of debate and observation. These conversations vary from praise to criticism; the focus has been on the ever-changing portrayal of female independence, strength and sexuality throughout the years. Snow White from the film Snow White and the Seven Dwarves represents a positive portrayal of female repression and restriction, while Pocahontas from the film Pocahontas represents a positive portrayal of female freedom. Elsa from the film Frozen acts as a bridge between these two, looking to exhibit the dangers of female restrictions such as Snow White and the celebration of female liberation and freedom such as Pocahontas, which paints her as a three-dimensional heroine exhibiting this progression. However I look to argue that, despite popular opinions and social media reactions to Frozen, Elsa is definitely not the first female heroine to exhibit independence, a healthy sexual expression or strength. I would like to show how there has been a gradual linear progression of these aspects all along that has increasingly improved over time, rather than overnight. I look to make this argument by examining the expression of female sexuality and independence and how it has progressed over time in different ways through three Disney heroines.
Our three heroines can be seen as examples of how females presented different stages of independence and sexual expression in film. Nearly eighty years ago we were introduced to the beautiful and innocent, yet passive Snow White. Displaying the beauty ideals of a young female and the part which she plays in society in her film, Snow White can be looked at as an example of how females were expected to be behave. Flash forward nearly fifty-seven years and we’re introduced to an entirely different type of heroine; the Native American Pocahontas proves to show a different side of what a female character can possibly be. An independent, free-spirited daydreamer, Pocahontas plays a much more active role in her life and is portrayed as a liberated and powerful character. In an icy blast we find ourselves in present day where just less than two years ago we were introduced to the Snow Queen of Arendelle. We see this character go from the villain of the original tale to a complex anti-hero of the final film. Not only does Elsa offer us a celebration of an independent and powerful female character, but she also the shows downfall of restricting such strengths.
When we are discussing the roles a female character plays in relation to the stereotypical gender roles and the portrayal of her independence the female’s expression of sexuality is a pivotal plot point. In family films like these we usually see sexuality as an underlying theme, being expressed through various symbols and subtle characterizations. The expression of female sexuality has gone through many different steps to get to where we are today. Snow White is presented as the idealized patriarchal figure of what women should emulate: Snow White is non-sexual, conservative, naïve, innocent and passive. Her character design includes a long dress, a modest neckline, and hair done-up tightly while her body language can be described as modest, restricted and proper. All of these physical traits can easily play into the ideal of how women “should” think and behave. An important symbol in the film for sexuality is the apple. With the allusion to the temptation of Eve in the Garden of Eden, Snow White’s apple symbolizes a sexual and deadly temptation, sending an underlying message of the “danger” of a female expressing her “sinful” sexuality. We see this apple offered by the only other female character. This further paints the image that all sin arises from the temptation of females (those who don’t emulate Snow White’s brand of innocence). Snow White effectively “dies” from even one taste of this “sin” only to be rescued by a man. I believe that this not only places Snow White in a helpless role, but also sends a message that sexuality is only appropriate or redeemable when it’s a male perpetrating the action.
If we’re to compare Snow White to Pocahontas, it’s almost the complete opposite. Looking at character design we see Pocahontas as having a more curvy or sexualized image, with a short dress, an off-the-shoulder neckline, all completed with her hair down. Hair can act as a symbol for sexuality or expressive freedom. Specifically in that Snow White’s uptight, structured and modest hair style offers a glimpse into her conservative role concerning sexuality while Pocahontas’s raven hair frequently seen flowing in the wind can be looked at as more sexually liberated. Pocahontas also sports a tattoo, which would be hard to imagine on Snow White. Tattoos in literature are often symbols of individuality or freedom of expression. This sense of freedom is very important in her characterization. “Pocahontas has her mother’s spirit, she goes wherever the wind takes her” are the first words spoken of her. Her character is also frequently seen running and jumping throughout the film, a clear contrast from Snow White’s reserved body language. This introduction to her character paints her as a free-spirited woman living without the restrictions of characters like Snow White. However, the aspect of her more sexual image that is holding this character back from being fully progressive is arguably the fact that her sexual expression is still very much in relation to the entertainment of the male gaze. This is due to her story being based around her male relationships and the attention she receives from men. There’s a thin line between designing a sexually confident and expressive female character and designing a female character placing emphasis on “sex appeal.” I believe Pocahontas certainly walks this line which potentially hinders her progression and independence by still placing some of her sexual expression on the dependence on men.
We observe the character Queen Elsa as she brings our ideas here full circle. I believe Elsa offers a middle ground between these two ideas. These are presented in the initial portrayal of her conservative and restricted nature similar to Snow White to her eventual liberation and freedom of Pocahontas. Elsa’s character design includes two different dresses. Her first, more conservative style includes an tightly done up hairstyle akin to Snow White. She sports a floor length dress, cape and symbolic gloves. Gloves in literature and films often symbolize the concealing of true motives, desires, sexuality or power. The gloves are ripped off both figuratively and literally during her transition to her next style. Her second dress is not just a pretty dress but offers a glimpse at symbolism for female sexuality. This style includes an icy blue dress with a slit in the leg, which hints at an openness towards female sexuality, and a long icy cape. During this transition we also see her undoing her hair in a dramatic fashion, figuratively and literally “letting her hair down,” similarly changing from Snow White’s up-do to Pocahontas’s freely flowing locks. In addition, we see many instances of body language playing into this symbolic embracing of female sexuality. During this change we see Elsa swinging her hips and freely throwing her arms up while “letting it go.” What I believe is most important here is that this act of sexual liberation doesn’t have to be in position to entertain a man. Arguably, we couldn’t say this for Pocahontas whose story still very much places emphasis on men. Too often female sexuality, when it’s not condemned, is looked at as something that’s sole purpose is for the pleasing of men, as we see here that there was no John Smith or Prince Charming character for which she felt the need to impress. She never even has any sort of male love interest in the film at all, this symbolic sexual liberation takes place when she is completely by herself. This further shows Elsa’s sexual liberation coming from her accepting who she is and the powers she has. Female sexual liberation or expression can and should be born out of one’s own self-confidence and independence rather than being centered around male attention. It’s also important to observe the stages from shame to celebration through the portrayal of her initial conservative and fearful mindset to her eventual liberation and fearlessness. At the beginning we see many instances of the dangers of holding oneself back. She sings, “Be the good girl you always have to be, conceal, don’t feel, put on a show.” Many girls in society before and even today are commonly raised to sit down and be quiet and to not be open with one’s sexuality the ways boys are. We see through Elsa just how a woman can be negatively affected by being taught these things and “putting on a show.” I believe that her powers over ice and snow represent something more than just a magical aspect of the film. The way this magic is treated seems to symbolize female sexuality; it’s something beautiful and completely natural, but is shunned and shamed. Her parents forcing her to wear gloves to conceal her supernatural powers further shows this type of restriction she has been taught. So much so that when her true self is finally revealed, she reacts with fear and shame, showcasing the dangers of these strict standards and restrictions. However, her liberation and independence is celebrated, becoming a pivotal point in the film. The song “Let it Go” can be analyzed as having an underlying sexual liberation theme. The embracing of female freedom and sexuality and the rejection of strict regulations offer a much better and healthier message to audiences rather than the promotion of female conservativeness, innocence and non-sexuality. The repression of one’s sexuality due to societal expectations is shown in this film as a dangerous mindset. Her icy powers only caused her trouble when she had this mindset.
Concerning sexuality and gender roles, the role that romance plays and the role of the men opposite these women offers an obvious relation. In the film Snow White and the Seven Dwarves, Snow White meets her love interest, a nameless prince, and immediately falls in love. We have seen how Snow White is an idealized image of what a woman was supposed to be, and here she assumes one of the “acceptable” roles a woman could hold, that of the wife. The archetype of the Damsel in Distress is present within the character of Snow White. We see the Prince as the Hero, saving Snow White, who’s rendered helpless until he kisses her. I believe that this entire scene shows her role of sexuality being condemned. As discussed before, the sexual symbol of the apple puts her in a sleeping death, which is only redeemed when the male comes and plays the active role. Despite the themes that this story seems to promote, placing full dependence on love or a man to save your life is simply not a healthy way to live.
The film Pocahontas introduces us to the fictitious romance between Powhatan Princess Pocahontas and English Explorer John Smith. Their love story offers a much more complex pairing versus Snow White and her nameless rent-a-prince. The gender roles of this love story, especially compared to Snow White seem to be counter-stereotypical. An interesting study done by Dawn England examined each movie and describes each instance of these Disney characters exhibiting stereotypical “masculine” and “feminine” gender roles. This study observed the masculine traits in characters, examples involve such stereotypical male traits in fairy tales ranging from brave to violent. Conversely the feminine traits taken into consideration in this study include things like docile or gentleness. According to England’s study, Pocahontas exhibits 105 “masculine” versus 130 “feminine,” this is much closer to equal than Snow White exhibiting only 13 instances of the masculine gender role, and 137 feminine (558). This is a stark contrast that statistically shows the difference between Snow White and Pocahontas’ relation to gender roles, which heavily reflects upon their roles in their romances. A prime example of this reversal of gender roles is seen upon John Smith’s near execution. As we see, it is Pocahontas who is throwing her body over John, willing to sacrifice her own life for his. This places Pocahontas in a position of power and dominance and John Smith in a role of helplessness, effectively eliminating that aspect of the damsel in distress motif. The woman is no longer needs to be saved but she is now the savior. Also unlike her poison apple eating predecessor, I have found that Pocahontas takes the notion that she “needs to be saved” as an insult. This is seen in an earlier scene when John Smith tells Pocahontas how he and his fellow Englishmen have “improved the lives of savages everywhere” to which she takes obvious insult. This negative reaction to needing to be saved is important to note in discussions of the “female needing rescue” motif. Another major difference in the love story of this film is in its ending. Upon John Smith needing to return to England he extends Pocahontas an invitation to join him but she declines. While the film is ultimately based upon romance, Pocahontas is no damsel in distress, and places her priority on her family and her people rather than chasing romantic love, further painting her as a strong woman independent from men. Unlike Snow White, she does not assume the “acceptable” role as a man’s wife. I believe all of these things go to show that romantic relations do not always have to act as a hindrance to female strength and that there is power of family over romance, both of which are further expanded upon in later films.
Taking this evolution a step above Pocahontas, for the first time our heroine, Elsa, never has a love interest at all. In fact there is little to no mention of Elsa’s romantic life in the film. Her story simply does not need to involve a man; her emotions, motives and aspirations are more than complex enough to tell a story. While a female’s romantic relationships don’t have to be a threat to her characterization, it’s important to show a heroine whose story doesn’t have to involve such themes in the first place. This is an obvious intentional message to send, and is where Elsa comes in a step above Pocahontas. However, Elsa’s relationship to other men concerning her role as a woman is still important to her story. I observe Elsa as a symbol of a threat to male power. Upon the revelation of her magic, she’s immediately demonized mostly by the men around her. It’s also important to note that this revelation takes place during Elsa’s coronation as queen. She’s already literally displaying her political power as queen, to which certain characters look to exploit. Specifically the character of The Duke of Weaselton, thinking out loud upon entering the palace he says “Open those gates so I may unlock your secrets and exploit your riches!” This is why Elsa’s powers are so frightening to him: he proclaims Elsa as a “monster” because she has a power, which he doesn’t understand and therefore cannot effectively control. She has the ability to do something that’s out of the control of men and that scares them. Their only chance is to try to tear her down by demonizing her magic. Historically, this theme is exemplified with many “Witch Hunts” throughout history, where, due to a fear of women gaining power, many girls would be falsely accused of evil magic. It’s not a coincidence that “evil” witches are stereotypically female. Elsa’s overcoming of this patriarchal demonization of her supernatural and political power proves to be a dire aspect in the film. As we see, unlike Snow White, men can be, and often are, the very source of the main conflict rather than the solution.
When observing a female character’s independence from men it’s important to observe the nature of the relationships she forms with fellow women. Many female relationships too often fall to the sidelines, or into one category; competition. When fellow women are seen only as competition for male affection it severely hinders her independence. Just like Snow White’s only female-to-female relationship with the Evil Queen. “Since physical appearance has traditionally been the most valuable asset for a woman, beauty makes her eligible for marriage, it should come as no surprise that anyone considered superior in beauty is an enemy that must be destroyed.” (González). We see this as an example in the Evil Queen’s vice being born out of her envy of Snow White being “Fairest of them all”. As González indicates, this motive is a result of the importance society has–and still–places on female beauty and attractiveness. Expanding upon this idea, the Queen’s vanity and evilness play into one of only two categories most female characters fell into. Usually a female character was either the good “virgin” or the evil “whore.” González describes the Queen in relation to this “virgin-whore motif as, “The old, fallen woman, as the representation of the world of experience from which the heroine must be preserved, is introduced as a threat to the eternal state of innocence in which a woman is expected to remain” (204). It would seem that a woman who doesn’t remain in a state of innocence or male dependence is a menace. To expand on this idea, I observe the intention of these characterizations is for the audience to be conditioned to see Snow White’s innocence and dependence on a man as a positive aspects and, as discussed before, ideals for how women were supposed to act, while the Queen’s independence, power, and lack of a King is portrayed along with negativity, jealousy and evilness, how a woman was expected to oppose. This paints female independence as something that can only be seen in one who is threatening and harmful. This “Virgin versus Whore” motif proves to be overall problematic as it overly simplifies the portrayal of what a woman could be in film and society and demonizes females with power independent from men.
While Snow White’s only female-to-female exchange came in the form of a deadly competition with a jealous queen, we see Pocahontas forming positive and rewarding relationships with other females. Pocahontas’s very first interaction within her film is with her female best friend, Nakoma. The nature of their relationship is not one of rivalry or competition for a man’s affection, but rather of protection and mutual support. Upon learning of Pocahontas’s relationship with a white settler, Nakoma’s reaction does not include any jealousy or rivalry but rather she caringly and concerningly grabs her hand and says, “Pocahontas, please. You’re my best friend. I don’t want you to get hurt.” The caring nature of her best friend lends to the idea that females can and should protect and build each other up, rather than tear each other down in the name of a man. I believe this relationship was written to further show that female characters only motives don’t have to involve male affection. However, we often see Pocahontas not listening to Nakoma’s caring voice of reason, and we still see this relationship as secondary to the romance and too often falls to the sidelines in favor of her relationship with a man. The historical figure of Pocahontas offers many interesting stories and lessons yet the film and design of her character definitely gravitate towards her male relationships. While this female relationship is positively portrayed and rewarding, we don’t see female-to-female bonds as a focus of a film until 2013’s Frozen.
The relationship Elsa has with her sister Anna is important because it is the main course of the film rather than a side dish. It shows the strength of the sisterly bond has in place of romantic bonds. One aspect of their relationship that comes into play when discussing the ideals of feminism within the film is their differing views of romance. Elsa responds to Anna’s engagement by saying, “What do you understand about true love? You can’t marry a man you just met,” effectively crushing the dreams of the majority of her fellow Disney princesses. This viewpoint proves to be quite useful as the character whom Anna wished to marry, Hans, is revealed to be the true antagonist of the film. I believe this twist serves to show the fault of the “love at first sight” motif that is all too common in fairy tales. It’s not always a good idea to wed the first guy who sings a duet with you. Sure, in real life maybe he won’t try to kill you and your sister and take your kingdom, but Elsa’s maturity and caring for her sister in this situation further paints her as a powerful and independent female role model. In fact, the “act of true love” comes from their sisterly bond, rather than a man. This aspect of their relationship is crucial. We see Anna sacrificing herself to save Elsa’s life from the man she was almost ready to marry. However, not only does her act of sacrifice manage to save Elsa’s life, it has in turn saved Anna’s as her frozen heart begins to thaw. They have effectively saved each other’s lives without the help of Prince Charming. The hero-damsel motif isn’t just reversed, it is dismantled in this example. We have seen Snow White’s conflict a result of a female and her solution coming from a man saving the girl. In Pocahontas we then see the girl being the one to save the man. However with Frozen we see the problem stemming from men and a female-to-female bond being the ultimate solution. The film’s entire main focus being on the power of strong female relationships and independence from men is an excellent example of the evolution from the days of poison apples.
To expand on this traditionally negative connotation of female independence, I believe we see Elsa have more in common with the female villains of the past, such as the Evil Queen, rather than the supposed heroines: “Female independence has traditionally been perceived as a menace for the order established by patriarchal society, A woman who decides not to adapt herself to the traditional roles is seen as going against what nature has intended for her” (González 203). If we are to draw a comparison between The Snow Queen of 2013 and The Evil Queen of 1937, it is easy to identify the evolution. They both hold absolute monarch political power without a king; They both practice some sort of supernatural magic; They are both powerful, independent and misunderstood and shunned by their community. However, the portrayal of Elsa as a protagonist rather than an antagonist is crucial. The Evil Queen is written as a purely evil villain, demonized by both the audience and producers, as González has mentioned. While Elsa is portrayed as heroic and misunderstood, feeling the negative effects of such attitudes held by the men in her world against female power and independence. An important comparison to draw upon is the use of the word “fool.” This word has become a favorite amongst villains such as Maleficent and the Evil Queen, often used to demean their henchmen or the protagonist. However Elsa uses it in a different way. “I’m such a fool, I can’t be free” she sings. The only difference here is Elsa is directing the word at herself rather than others, tying her to the villain the men in the world lead her to believe she is. It shows a sort of internalized self-criticism taught to girls who dare to exhibit the independence, power, or differences traditionally portrayed by villains. Another aspect that is pivotal to their understanding is the intended reaction for these characters from their respective audiences. The audience of 1937’s Snow White & The Seven Dwarfs is lead to see the powerful and independent female as a threat, with negative intentions, wicked jealousy and disregard. However, the audience of 2013’s Frozen is lead to see this powerful and independent female as a misunderstood hero, one who takes control of her own destiny and sets a good example. Female independence doesn’t have to come from jealous and evil villains, but can and should be born out of heroines. One may argue that with the female villains, Disney has been portraying strong and independent females all along. However, I would argue that there is an underlying negative message in portraying these things in antagonists. It would seem as though it is saying that females exhibiting these strengths and powers are doomed to be defeated, and receive an unhappy ending. While powerless and weaker female characters are the ones that receive, or “deserve” a happy ending. When self-sufficiency, sexuality and strength in female characters is only shown in the evil villains it provides an overall negative connotation to an audience of impressionable young kids. This makes protagonists displaying these traits all the more important.
Music plays an important role, not only in the plot development, but also in offering a look into the messages of the films as well. Snow White sings the song “Someday My Prince Will Come.” The title itself lends to the passive dependence women were expected to take within romance and life that we have previously discussed. In the present day it is easy to see how this message doesn’t exactly work. Taken directly from the piece, “Wedding bells will ring, Someday when my dreams come true”. This presents the idea that a woman’s “dreams coming true” usually only involving “wedding bells ringing”. The way this idea is presented in the song is as if the only acceptable dream for women is being a wife dependent on males, which goes back to Snow White’s overall portrayal being based upon the strict standards and ideals society had for females.
In Pocahontas’ “Just Around the Riverbend,” “Pocahontas’ dissatisfaction subverts the conventions of previous Disney songs” (Zarranz 58). This song presents her dissatisfaction with another character, Kocoum’s, marriage proposal. Pocahontas sings that she “ignores the sound of distant drumming” for a “handsome sturdy husband who builds handsome sturdy walls.” Along with this contrast, another interesting example of this subversion is in lyrics, from Snow White’s “Dreams Coming True” when “Wedding Bells Ring,” to Pocahontas singing “Should I Marry Kocoum? Is All My Dreaming at an End?” This direct contrast not only paints a woman’s dreams as something more than just finding a handsome, sturdy husband, but also showing that it could in fact signal the end of her dreams. So while Snow White exhibits the idealized and ultimately outdated and harmful concept that a woman’s wedding is the pinnacle of her life, Pocahontas exhibits the opposite. This song rather paints marriage as something she is dreading, rather than dreaming of. The song also paints Pocahontas as a very active part of her love life. While Snow White may sit at the riverbank waiting for high tide to bring in whatever prince she sings a duet with first, Pocahontas jumps right in, listens to her heart and wants to make her own decisions in her romantic life.
Just like discussed previously, Elsa’s story and song “Let it Go” do not involve romantic love in the first place. While Snow White sings about a dream marriage proposal, and Pocahontas sings of a rejection of such concepts, Elsa’s main number is about her own liberation and power. This takes the ideas of female independence and freedom a step above Pocahontas and a leap above Snow White. Many lines of the song lend to the ideas of female independence, power and even underlying tones of sexual liberation. From the first verse’s “I couldn’t keep it in, heaven knows I tried” to the second verse’s “The fears that once controlled me, can’t get to me at all” addresses the restrictions Elsa, and many females, have experienced through both historic and modern society’s impossible standards for women. Elsa associates her power with fear and misunderstanding, but within this number we see not only acceptance, but celebration of being powerful. This also examines the danger of women living with such restrictions over their lives. Those restrictions only serve to create a sense of shame, fear and inequality from their male counterparts. “Let it Go” definitely ties us back to the ideas of sexual liberation through various undertones in the lyrics. The lyric that I believe sums up the entire idea of the song comes in the final chorus, “Let it go and I’ll rise like the break of dawn, let it go That perfect girl is gone, here I stand in the light of day.” “That Perfect Girl is Gone” not only excellently sums up the message of this song and film, but of the entire idea that I’m researching. The strive for perfection and unrealistic standards of beauty, femininity and the roles women are “supposed” to play in society are harmful and effectively “let go.” While, Elsa shows us the harms when we try to abide by these outdated expectations of Snow White, she also exhibits the liberation experienced when they are let go and is free and liberated similar to Pocahontas and takes it a step further.
While the strives the Disney studios have made in terms of their portrayals of female independence within their films has proven to be quite progressive, it’s important to note that even the most recent characters and films aren’t without issues in terms of gender relations and equality. While, as discussed, it’s healthy for female sexuality to be more freely expressed, there is a line to be drawn between portraying females that are confident with their sexuality and females designed simply for sex appeal. This isn’t to say that certain misguided decisions behind the scenes totally discredit the positive aspects of these characters. An interesting project that I have come across called the “RealPrincess” which I found to be an excellent example of putting pressure on Disney studios to expand even further with their feminist evolution. This project entailed girls drawing their version of “Real Princesses” which included princess who were either non-attractive, plus-sized, disabled, gay, transgender, and other aspects not yet explored by Disney. We’ve seen unattractive males as protagonists but all of the females have been relatively pretty. I would like to think conversations like this would encourage a mainstream and popular studio like Disney to display these people’s different stories to their broad audience and would just hope that the audience would be receptive these different Princesses. However, if there is any criticism of this article, I would say that the strawman fallacy is utilized here by setting up these characters as easier to knock down. “One of the most nefarious aspects of the traditional Disney princess model is the stereotypical, hyper-feminine ideals their narratives promote” (Zellinger 3). The author seems to broadly generalize all of Disney’s female protagonists by the older stereotype of helpless damsels in distress in order to further make their argument. I feel Pocahontas, Mulan and Elsa are important points of progression, although their role as relatively attractive females remain. It is important to keep a certain amount of pressure on our media to keep striving to improve the portrayals of females, however, it is also important to still offer praise and encouragement for improvements that we do see.
These three characters offer a glimpse into the overall evolution of female characters within Disney films. Putting them side by side we see how the portrayals of female liberation has gradually improved, results varying from a passive, naïve and virginal young girl to confident, strong willed and three-dimensional young women. It seems the further we venture into demonstrating complexity, independence and imperfections in females the closer we get to achieving the perfect female role model.
England, D. E., Descartes, L., & Collier-meek, M. (2011). “Gender Role Portrayal and the Disney Princesses”. Sex Roles, 64(7-8), 555-567.doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-011-9930-7
Frozen. Dir. Chris Buck and Jennifer Lee. Prod. Peter Del Vecho. Perf. Idina Menzel, Kristen Bell. Buena Vista Pictures Distribution, Inc., 2013. Film.
González, Margarita Carretero, and María Elena Rodríguez-Martín. “Wicked Women: The Menace Lurking Behind Female Independence.” At The Interface / Probing The Boundaries 57. (2009): 199-209. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Web. 8 Apr. 2015.
Pocahontas. Dir. Mike Gabriel and Eric Goldberg. By Carl Binder, Susannah Grant, Philip LaZebnik, Irene Bedard, Judy Kuhn, Mel Gibson, and David Ogden Stiers. Buena Vista Pictures Distribution, Inc., 1995. Film.
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. By Walt Disney, David Hand, Perce Pearce, Larry Morey, Distributed by Buena Vista Film Distribution Co., 1937. Film.
Zarranz, Libe Garcia. “Diswomen Strike Back? The Evolution of Disney’s Femmes in the 1990s.” Atenea 27.2 (2007): 55-67. Literary Reference Center. Web. 8 Apr. 2015.
Zeilinger, Julie. “Young Girls Everywhere Are Showing Disney What a Princess Really Looks Like.” Mic. N.p., 03 Apr. 2015. Web. 08 Apr. 2015.